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For example, a forensic document examiner can determine whether the stray toner particles (they are present on any laser-printed and photocopied documents but invisible to the naked eye) are below or above ballpoint pen ink writing (see Aginsky, V.
N., “Determining the Sequence of Non-Intersecting Media on Documents: Ballpoint Pen Ink and Laser Toner Entries,” , Vol.
There are four major approaches (each approach is a group of methods) used for dating inks on documents: 1.
Ink Aging Approach Various methods have been published to measure aging processes that occur in ink on documents. Aginsky is the author of two ink aging methods that analyze ink volatile components (not ink dye components*) and that have been tested and applied to actual cases by multiple forensic laboratories.
The answer to that question may determine whether the document has been altered (by adding certain information).
It should be noted that sequence of execution may be determined even when lines of the text and signature (handwritten notation) do not intersect. * At present, the ink aging methods that analyze ink dye components are considered unreliable by the overwhelming majority of ink dating specialists and forensic document examiners.
Care must be taken when inks are deemed to be indistinguishable using any testing method.
Our Practice is the longest established private independent laboratory in Great Britain dealing with the examination of questioned documents.
For more than five decades, the laboratory has had an international reputation and regularly receives instructions from all over the world.
Our examiners use an instrument known as a VSC 2000HR to carry out non-destructive specialised lighting examinations.
Inks may also be distinguished by other more complex chemical tests but these are likely to be destructive to some extent.